Extremely useful research reported here. Let us hope that one day truly ancient genomes will be evaluated for parts of the homo line ancestral to homo sapiens.


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Which recognizes that we don't know everything, but is curious and exploratory and longs to find answers that work ... as opposed to another "discipline" which seems to think it already has all the answers when it has NONE.

Fascinating article.  It's amazing what progress we've made in the study of evolution during the roughly 150 years since Darwin published "On The Origin of Species."  We have cosmologists giving us details into the beginning of our universe and paleontologists working backwards into time to give us details on how we arrived at our present state.  It's utterly astounding.   

Fascinating and astounding, no doubt. I cannot think of better adjectives. It is also very reassuring that science is traveling on very correct lines. I do not have any faith in science, I have well reasoned complete trust in science. Many thanks are due to Dr.Meaden for bringing such fascinating news to us.

Speaking of ancient genomes ancestral to homo sapiens - I just had my DNA analyzed for the second time by National Geographic (It has more rigorous and complete testing now). To my surprise NG told me that I am 2.9% Neanderthal and 3% Denisovan. I didn't think I was that archaic. My paternal haplogroup is I-L621 and my maternal is H5b.

That's really cool, John.  I'm Scandinavian and Germanic.  I wouldn't be surprised if I had some Neanderthal in me as well. 

Pardon my ignorance, but I have no idea what you're talking about when you state:  "My paternal haplogroup is I-L621 and my maternal is H5b."  Can you put that into layman's terms for me?  Thanks!

The I-L621 haplogroup is the last of a series of mutations in the type of DNA that is passed from father to son to son etc. Scientists have been able to determine approximately where the male ancestor was when the mutation took place. By doing this for the preceding haplogroups in the series they  wind up with a series of locations. Connecting those locations with straight lines from earliest to latest establishes the route that was taken by your male ancestors from about 70,000 years ago to the time of the last mutation which is the relative present. Analogously, the H5b is the last of a series of mutations in the  type of DNA that is passed from mother to daughter to daughter etc. In the way just explained for your male ancestors scientists can map the route that was taken by your female ancestors from about 70,000 years to the relative present.. 

Fascinating! Do you have any information about location of those haplogroups? 

The last meaningful haplogroup on my father's side was P37.2. It was followed by M423 and I-L621 but not much has been learned about these two yet. They might have just coexisted with P37.2. P37.2 occurred in the Balkans to which my father's side went almost directly after leaving Africa. 57% of the males in Bosnia and Herzegovina are of the P37.2 haplogroup. According to National Geographic after the ice age some of this haplogroup moved north. Some of them then turned east above the Black Sea and went into Ukraine. My father's line could have been among them because to the best of my knowledge he was full blooded Ukrainian.  (For centuries the Ukrainian clan of which he was a member had its own culture in Austria but it stemmed from Ukraine). He had very blonde hair as did his father and sister but this probably came from P37.2 encountering northern Europeans who had weathered the ice age in Ukraine. At any rate my fathers parents came to this country as Ukrainians from Austria.


The last meaningful haplogroup  on my mother's side was H.  It was followed by H5 and H5b but like on my father's side not much has been learned about these two yet either. Very analogously to my father's side they might have just coexisted with H. Unlike on my father's side ancestors of H went north to the Baltic Sea and then very successfully turned southwest into the rest of Europe. H is supposed to have been associated with high tech cultures during the stone age. It was so successful that approximately 40 to 60 percent  of females in western European cultures are of the H haplogroup. A branch of H went into Italy where 40% of the women are of the H haplogroup. My mother was full blooded Italian. 


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