"Cannabis with high cannabidiol levels will make a more appealing option for anti-pain, anti-anxiety and anti-spasm treatments, because they can be delivered without causing disconcerting euphoria,"
"Results: There are three primary findings related to age of first use of marijuana. Subjects who started using marijuana before age 17, compared to those who started later, had smaller whole brain and percent cortical gray matter and larger percent white matter volumes. Functionally, males who started using marijuana before 17 had significantly higher CBF than other males. Both males and females who started younger were physically smaller in height and weight, with the effects being greater in males."
"AbstractÐA number of studies suggested that cannabis use can cause or exacerbate psychoses and may increase the risk of developing schizophrenia. These ®ndings suggest that changes in the cannabinoid system of the brain may be involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. To determine whether changes in the cannabinoid system were present in the brains of subjects with schizophrenia, we used in situ radioligand binding and autoradiography to measure the binding of [3H]CP-55940 to the cannabinoid-1 receptor in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 9), caudate±putamen and areas of the temporal lobe from schizophrenic and control subjects, some of whom had ingested cannabis close to death. There was an increase in the density of [3H]CP-55940 binding to cannabinoid-1 receptors in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from subjects with schizophrenia (mean ^ S.E.M.: 142 ^ 9.9 vs 119 ^ 6.6 fmol/mg estimated tissue equivalents; P , 0.05) that was independent of recent cannabis ingestion. There was an increase in the density of cannabinoid-1 receptors in the caudate±putamen from subjects who had recently ingested cannabis (151 ^ 9.0 vs 123 ^ 7.2 fmol/mg estimated tissue equivalents; P , 0.05) that was independent of diagnoses.
These data indicate that there are changes in cannabinoid-1 receptors in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that may prove to be associated with the pathology of schizophrenia. By contrast, changes in the density of cannabinoid-1 receptors may occur in the caudate±putamen in response to cannabis ingestion. q 2001 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved."
That was my impression, Daniel, and it fit with the experiences I had with boys at the ranches. Those who used it were virtually stopped in their ability in math, spelling, and recalling history and social studies. It was as though they went into a holding pattern. Sadly, I didn't follow up on them in a longitudinal study.
The boys who were using cannabis may have been using it because of emotional problems, and their being "stopped" in school because of being stoned a lot, may have been their way of dropping out because of emotional problems. It's not necessarily bad. Maybe there were more urgent things to address, than their school subjects.
It depends on how much one uses cannabis. I smoked marijuana a lot in college. I couldn't do homework or go to classes stoned, but I did get stoned in the evening after my homework was done. That didn't cause problems.
The problem isn't solved by self-medicating with mj, it was that parents gave their children mj so the parents didn't have to put up with their sons' energy and feelings. You may be correct that there were more important problems facing them, and that is what learning life skills helps to solve. If a boy wanted to talk to his parents and couldn't, he had a place that was safe, secure and stable where he could speak his rage and come out of it feeling that he had some skills of self-expression. If a boy had a temper tantrum, he was protected from hurting himself, others. His amygdala was hijacked, he was thinking with his primitive brain, and when he came out of the tantrum he learned ways to express his rage other ways and how to solve the problems that put him in a rage in the first place. If a boy got into a fight with another, it often turned into hitting and wrestling. We gave him boxing gloves and something to hit, and when he was exhausted, he learned how to express his anger verbally to the one with whom he had conflict, how to use up the energy generated by his amygdala, and how to use verbal skills in conflict resolution. When a boy left the ranch he, and his parents, had life skills tool kits embedded in their minds to serve them when they left the protection of the ranch. They always had us as backup when/if needed.
The boy was usually off medication, no longer felt helpless and hopeless, and knew how to think through a problem or a conflict in an effective and efficient way. The boy was happier, the parents were now trained in the same skills and they were happier, and the root causes of the boys' acting out were improved.
The hard ones were the ones who were depressed. My job was to find out what caused fear, anger, grief, shame and guilt. By using rational methods to look at the causes of depression, by finding something that sparked his interests and building on that, that putting him in charge of some farm animal, by offering him boxing and wrestling skills, by reading to him quietly as he went to sleep, by having him write about his feelings, hopes and dreams, by reframing his experience to a point that he could be grateful for what he learned from unhappy or unhealthy behaviors, by helping him realize his feelings mattered and were messages from his mind, body, and emotions to help him learn from them, he learned to grow through his fears, angers, grief, shame and guilt. His feelings were his friends trying to tell him something needed attention. Feelings don't tell one what or why one is depressed, they revealed a sense of powerlessness and not being able to predict the outcome of a situation.
Depression is often caused by feeling helpless and out of control. Give a boy the skills to use the feelings as stepping stones to being able to confront problems and conflicts and the emotional strength to do something.
Obviously, not all depression is situational. Sometimes there are chemical deficiencies that can be helped by medication, not to deaden the feelings, but to bring the feelings that are unpleasant and nonproductive into an appreciation of their messages and the power to transform the experience.
This process was not to cover up the symptoms, or deny that there is a problem or conflict, or delude oneself into a Pollyanna mode of life. It was to be real, to honor the body's functions, to develop attitudes of being able to take on challenges, to bring a sense of agency into the boy's life. "I can do this; it is hard; I have what I need to take on the challenge" kind of thinking.
The mj use was a symptom that needed attention, not ignored, denied, deluded. Your using mj in college is quite different than a 10 year old using it. The brain is not fully developed until about age 25. During the developmental stage, mj interferes with the normal stage of development that isn't recovered with time.
Have you ever wondered why grown men and women don't think as mentally healthy, mature adults? Does mentally unhealthy, immature thinking work for the challenges facing adults?
The problem isn't solved by self-medicating with mj
I didn't say mj solves emotional problems.
But, heavy mj users having problems in school, does not imply the effects of mj were the cause of the problems.
From personal experience, I agree that trying to learn school subjects stoned is often not a good idea.
But, what you said doesn't imply that MJ is bad for kids. It's a matter of what is good evidence.
I'm OK with the idea that kids shouldn't use MJ because it might badly affect their brains.
I am 100% OK with mj for adult brains. But how many kids think they are kids?
Daniel, I think you're right about there being so little science and so much personal or political agenda.
I think marijuana should be legalized, but not because there is good evidence that it's mostly beneficial. Listening to the defenders of marijuana on this site, I was becoming convinced that it was mostly a good thing. They seemed to have evidence of that, but after doing a little research of my own, I think not.
I have no problems with mj and even think it should be made legal again. (Yes, it was once legal and they even sang about it in an old movie.) The problems with cannibis today is that it's laced with so many other things (for a high) and the buyers do not know what they are buying. This is a big threat to adults and children.
The first thing would be to take the high profits out of mj sales by making it legal, regulating it similar to tobacco sales and use, complete with mandated packaging. The second thing would be to study and market the oil as a possible cure to disease and pain relief.
For those who continue to believe how dangerous this would be, consider that we have some people out here sniffing rags soaked in gasoline. I don't think we will be outlawing gasoline because of this.
The first thing would be to take the high profits out of mj sales by making it legal, regulating it similar to tobacco sales and use, complete with mandated packaging.
And making it legal for people to grow MJ for personal use.