How does Arctic warmth create wild weather in North America and Europe in summer?

Let's picture this scientific summary step by step.

A primarily summer mechanism proposed and demonstrated by Petoukhov et al. [19] and Coumou et al. [6] suggests that the weakened poleward gradient owing to AA is conducive to the formation of a split-jet structure during summer months that acts as a waveguide, trapping and amplifying large jet-stream waves. These waves then become nearly stationary, creating persistent weather conditions that have contributed to an increasing number of temperature and precipitation extremes over Northern Hemisphere continents.

Evidence linking rapid Arctic warming to mid-latitude weather patterns

"the weakened poleward gradient owing to AA"

Since hot air rises, the atmosphere is higher at the equator than the poles. This causes a pressure gradient.

image source

When a section of the Arctic Ocean heats up, it creates a bump of higher air, interrupting the smooth gradient.

"conducive to the formation of a split-jet structure during summer months"

image source

"a split-jet structure during summer months that acts as a waveguide, trapping and amplifying large jet-stream waves. These waves then become nearly stationary, creating persistent weather conditions"

image source

Mangled Jet Stream on June 20th, 2014

an example of a Jet Stream mangled by human-caused climate change

I don't quite get the wave guide metaphor here, but it's helpful to understand how a disturbed pressure gradient splits the jet stream, slowing it down even more. So Arctic ice melts, then Texas gets droughts and floods. It makes sense to me.

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Thanks Ruth!

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