published June 2018

                                                         FIRST TESTAMENT: ORIGINS

                                                               CHAPTER 2. GENESIS


1. Nearly fourteen billion years ago the Big Bang happened.
2 ... of which remnants survive as background, cosmic radiation—weak and cool, flowing outwards, in all directions, at a temperature near 270 degrees below zero Celsius, three degrees above Kelvin’s absolute zero—
3 … as measured by mankind’s Earth-based instruments—the amount exactly as predicted.
4. This pervasive microwave radiation—detected by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965—is a fossil of that time, and confirms the Big Bang’s beginnings.
5. It was a theoretical prophecy, wholly dependent on the correctness of the concept of a Big Bang; which had come true.
6. Radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson found that the nature and temperature of this uniform background radiation corresponded with predictions made by George Gamow and physics colleagues on the basis that what remained of the Big Bang’s radiation would now have cooled to 3 degrees Kelvin.
7. In 1992 more precise mensuration by the Earth-orbiting Cosmic Background Explorer satellite (COBE)—the team led by astrophysicist John C. Mather—detected minuscule variations in the afterglow radiation in the form of nuances of temperature difference whose origin lay in the ripples of primeval density fluctuations that followed the Big Bang.
8. “The cosmic background radiation is the heat radiation left over after the Big Bang. It still contains 99% of all known radiant energy in the whole universe, so it is very bright”. John C. Mather. From “Observing the Big Bang”, the 1995 IBM Milne lecture.
9. “The scientific discovery of the century, if not of all time”, declared Stephen Hawking, physicist, for it confirmed the Universe’s quantum origin.
10. “The COBE results have given physicists confidence that we understand the origin of the Universe to within a fraction of a second after the Big Bang.” Michio Kaku, physicist. Hyperspace. p. 201.
11. Born of a primordial explosion our Universe had a quantum beginning in time,
12. … issuing uncaused from a featureless void via a quantum fluctuation—as explained by the laws and mathematics of quantum physics.
13. Unlike a vacuum, the void is not 'part' of the Universe. The void is its source, and devoid of properties.
14. The physical principle that something—energy and matter—could spontaneously come from fundamentally ‘nothing’ is due to the innate instability of the void.
15. For ‘nothing’ in this sense is not ‘nothing’ in the sense that is used in everyday language.
16. Hence the Big Bang.
17. Commenting on the great Millennium Run experiment by fast computer simulation of the development of the Universe, Carlos Frenk, cosmologist, said in 2005: “For the first time we can peer into the inner workings of the Universe and understand cosmic evolution in its entirety.”
18. It is the result of 500,000,000,000,000,000 calculations (500,000 trillion) by supercomputer based on information on the current composition of the Universe, the microwave radiation left over after the Big Bang, and the laws of physics.
19. The modelling was achieved right down to dwarf galaxies, correctly predicting information that has since been observed.
20. Pope Pius XII (1952) saw the Big Bang theory as supporting his reinterpretation of biblical creation. Pope Pius XII “Modern science and the existence of God. The Catholic Mind. March 1952. 182-192.
21. Astrophysicist Robert Jastrow: “The astronomical evidence leads to a biblical view of the origin of the world.” 1978. God and the astronomers. p.116.
22. Physicist Gerald Schroeder proffered a scientific Jewish interpretation that the first six days of the biblical Genesis corresponded literally to the 14 billion years understood by man, because time measurements in relativity theory differ according to the observer’s frame of reference. Genesis and the Big Bang: The discovery of harmony between modern science and the bible. 1990.
23. Of the Big Bang, cosmologist-priest and astronomer Georges Edouard Lemaître, who is regarded as the academic father of the Big Bang theory of the expanding universe, said it was “a day without a yesterday”.
24. The concept was pursued by physicist George Gamov in 1948 and elaborated by Ralph Alpher and Robert Herrman, their insights scrutinised and verified by the masters of cosmic mathematics.
25. “The discovery of the expansion of the Universe was one of the great intellectual revolutions of the twentieth century”. Stephen Hawking. Universe in a Nutshell, p.76


26. The answers to the questions concerning the origins of the Universe spring from a merging of high-energy particle physics with cosmology and astrophysics.
27. Vic Stenger, physicist: “Quantum mechanics provides a purely natural mechanism for the transition empty Universe to non-empty Universe.” 2002.
28. Physics, in all its powers, resolves that the Universe was instantly self-created, uncaused, from the unstable void or false vacuum—
29. —an abiding [timeless] quantum void—with the property that incipient, virtual particles were omnipresent. It was timeless chaotic emptiness.
30. For quantum uncertainty is all pervasive, throughout the world and the Universe, even unto the void.
31. And you must know that the unstable void or its alter ego the Universe is all there is to contemplate.
32. As explained by Vic Stenger, universes in real time are all there can be.
33. They are eternally present, forever existing, because their absence would imply an unstable state of the void that cannot exist in time.
34. Thus, our Universe simply is …
35. … because at least one universe is always necessarily present.
36. For if not, there would be a void instead—but a void being truly unstable, a universe would instantly replace it.
37. Therefore, a universe–or universes—must be. They always were; and always will be.
38. Therefore too, because time cannot exist prior to universes, universes cannot have any first cause.
39. With no first cause, there is no primary origin, no creation. Therefore postulations of the supernatural are superfluous, dispensable, worthless.
40. In short, the “people’s gods exist only in their heads. Atheism is the condition of the Universe into which we are all born, and naturally develop unless indoctrination into some ‘faith’ comes about—the most intense pressure being directed at blameless children. There is no supernaturalism.” Terence Meaden, physicist. Atheist Nexus 2008
41. “The nothingness ‘before’ the creation of the Universe is the most complete void we can imagine. No space, time or matter existed. It is a world without place, without duration or eternity …” Heinz Pagels, physicist.
42. “Then assuredly the world was made, not in time, but simultaneously with time.” St. Augustine.
43. Although like the stars, the void is not humanly approachable, its physics is within human reach, because it is entrenched in the theory of cosmological inflation that has abundant empirical evidence supporting it.
44. “Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing. Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist. It is not necessary to invoke God to light the blue touch paper and set the universe going." Stephen Hawking. 2010. New Book of the Universe.
45. Charles Darwin said: “Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: it is those who know little, and not those who know much, who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science”. 1871 The Descent of Man.
46. J. B. S. Haldane, geneticist, 1892-1964: “The Universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose.” Possible worlds.


47. Launched in June 2001 was a successor Earth-orbiting satellite to COBE. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe or WMAP enabled the planning of the minuscule variations of the Universe’s primeval background microwave radiation with a precision forty times greater than had been achieved ten years earlier.
48. The microwave light captured in the picture-plan corresponds to the situation for a date 380,000 years after the Big Bang.
49. Michael Turner: “To a cosmologist, the map has the emotional impact of looking at a beautiful painting.”
50. The data, when compared with other high-resolution astronomical observations, allowed the age of the Universe to be calculated with one-per-cent accuracy, the geometry of the Universe to be assessed, the weight of matter and energy in the Universe to be determined, the rate of expansion of the Universe to be detailed, and the fate of the Universe to be predicted.
51. “We have laid the cornerstone of a unified coherent theory of the Cosmos.” Charles L. Bennett, team leader from the Goddard Space Flight Center.
52. David N. Spergel, astrophysicist: “We have answered the set of questions that have driven the field of cosmology for the last two decades. How many atoms in the Universe? How old is the Universe?”
53. The remnant temperature fluctuations following the primordial fires of the Big Bang are yielding their secrets.
54. Peter Atkins, chemist: “Complete knowledge is just within our grasp. Comprehension is moving across the face of the Earth like the Sun.”


55. Within seconds of the bang, the primeval universe was a quickly-growing, immediately-huge fireball of dense gas, incomprehensibly hot, already cooling -- the energy of expansion essentially derived from the gravitational energy of the Universe.
56. Events had begun that would lead to life on Earth, to the rise of mankind, to the questions that would be asked.
57. Above all others, how? And why?
58. “The only thing that seems to be unbounded is the power of reason”. Stephen Hawking. [in his forward to Search for Infinity 1994.]
59. For the cosmological initial conditions lie within the scope of superstring and M-theory and the laws of physics under which a universe can develop from a random quantum event and seemingly beget itself from the void.
60. In this context, the laws of physics are viewed mathematically as harmonies of the strings,
61. … and superstring theory is the basic unifying principle for all nature.
62. All the matter in our Universe is connected to a vast membrane-like structure . . .
63. … governed by multi-dimensional M-theory and eleven-dimensional supergravity mathematics—having ten spatial dimensions and one of time;
64. And from the tiny strings emanate particles of matter. It is a mathematical convenience.
65. Lisa Randall, physicist: “Particles are not themselves fundamental, but are oscillation modes of a fundamental string.”
66. These are practical, mathematical conveniences, in which membranes or branes serve as the four-dimensional equivalents of strings in particle physics.
67. John Schwartz, scientist: “M-theory represents magic, mystery or membrane, according to taste.”
68. “ ‘Tis strange but true; for truth is always strange;
Stranger than fiction.” Lord Byron. Don Juan. Canto 14, St. 101.
69. The weakness of gravity in our Universe results from the leakage of gravity between universes—ours and the next where there is another membrane in the 11th dimension.
60. This is the approach of supergravity theory, initiated by Michael Duff, elegantly extended by Lisa Randall, 2001.
71. It sets the origin of the Big Bang’s singularity within intellectual grasp,
72. … the Bang discernible as a Portal between universes—essentially between a previous universe and our Universe.
73. For M-theory explains the Bang as the aftermath of colliding parallel worlds—both as four-dimensional space-time membranes or branes, floating in a higher-dimensional space and bearing an enormous amount of kinetic energy.
74. So, universes are ekpyrotic, borne along on finite branes; the theory is one of Big Collisions. Paul Steinhardt and Neil Turok, cosmologists, 2002.
75. The model’s predictions are similar to inflationary theory except there is no singularity at the Big Bang.
76. “The branes collide, and the energy of that collision creates all the matter and energy in our Universe.” Paul Steinhardt. Science. v.296, 639, April 2002.
77. The membranes rebound and separate.
78. The whole is a brane universe—a multiverse or Infiniverse—that evolves, dies and revives eternally.
79. It is a Cosmos with no beginning and no end.
80. “It seems like a consistent philosophical framework. Time is infinite, space is infinite, and they have always been there.” Neil Turok. Science, v. 296, 639, April 2002.
81. “The membranes are planes and make the Cosmos wane.” Charles Seife, scientist. Science v. 296, 639, 2002.
82. For the branes travel like waves,
83. ... upon which ride ripples
84. … whose effect after the pseudo-singularity-producing collision is to impart density-fluctuations into the primordial ball of an ekpyrotic universe.
85. … leading to matter-clumps from which galaxies and galaxy clusters will form. Burt Ovrut, Paul Steinhardt, Neil Turok, Justin Khoury, cosmologists, 2001.
86. Thus is explained, by the brilliance of genius and mathematical enlightenment, the Big Bang and the subsequent period of rapid expansion.


87. The laws of physics are good. The mathematics is good. The ‘Theory of Everything’ is at hand with the potential for an infinity of universes and the grandest implications for a Cosmos Everlasting;
88. in which our Universe -- its space and time born at the Big Bang -- is but one universe of many.
89. The seething void can now be seen as possibly a relic of some earlier brane or universe, before transmutation into the current Universe, part of an ongoing everlasting cycle.
90. Martin Rees, astrophysicist: “Our entire Universe may be just one element -- one atom as it were -- in an infinite ensemble: a cosmic archipelago. Each universe starts with its own big bang, acquires a distinctive imprint (and its individual laws) as it cools, and traces out its own cosmic cycle. The Big Bang which triggered our entire Universe is, in this grander perspective, an infinitesimal part of an elaborate structure that extends far beyond the range of any telescopes.” 1997. Before the beginning: Our Universe and others.
91. Said Pierre-Simon Laplace: “We may conceive the present state of the Universe as the effect of its past and the cause of its future. An Intellect who at any given instant knew all the forces that animate nature and the mutual position of the beings who compose it, were this Intellect but vast enough to submit his data to analysis, could condense into a single formula the movement of the greatest body in the Universe and that of the lightest atom; to such an Intellect nothing would be uncertain, because the future, even as the past, would be ever present before his eyes.”
92. Neil Turok: “The Big Bang is but one in an infinite series of big bangs stretching back into the eternal past.”
93. Paul Steinhardt and Neil Turok, 2002: There is “an endless sequence of cycles of expansion and contraction. By definition, there is neither a beginning nor end of time, nor is there any need to define initial conditions.” Science, 296, 1436-1439.
94. Preexisting universes and parallel universes. Universes coming, universes going, infinite in number, endless in time … pulsating in cycles.
95. As with the proverbial egg and hen, or zygote and gamete, a brane collision [leading to a ‘Big Bang’] may be just a universe’s way of producing more universes.
96. “The Child is father of the Man.” William Wordsworth, poet, 1770-1850. My heart leaps up.
97. As for us, in our home Universe, we were born of our Big Bang and subsequent expansion.
98. We are literally made of stardust. Every atom in our bodies was born either of the Big Bang or of supernova stars.
99. Cosmologist-priest Georges Edouard Lemaitre: “The expansion of the universe is a matter of astronomical facts interpreted by the theory of relativity.”
100. And we are the local ‘consciousness’ in our part of the Universe.
101. Paul Davies, physicist: “Through conscious beings the universe has generated self-awareness”. The Mind of God.
102. But our presence is limited -- not timeless. There will come a day when our Solar System will burn out, and our consciousness will be lost.
103. Yet the succession of universes will continue endlessly; the totality of the Cosmos is everlasting.
104. For the Cosmos is. It simply ‘is’.
105. It always has been; always will be.
106. With the passage of years the Big Bang theory is ever more complete, and the measured accuracy of the Hubble Constant that dates our Universe is ever more exact.
107 Paul Davies: “However astonishing and inexplicable a particular occurrence may be, we can never be absolutely sure that at some distant time in the future a natural phenomenon will not be discovered to explain it”.
108. The power of human intellect in the fields of mathematics, theoretical physics and cosmology is so profound that it should prove possible in centuries to come to resolve any continuing or residual problems.
109. Quantum theory, relativity theory, particle physics, astrophysics, superstring and brane theory: their secrets unfold.
110. The merging of cosmology with particle physics—experiment and theory—completes the answers.
110. “It is arguable that the most important scientific discovery ever made is that the whole Universe -- everything that exists -- is amenable to rational inquiry by the methods of physics and astronomy.” Dennis Sciama, physicist, 1980. Forward to Joseph Silk’s The Big Bang: The creation and evolution of the universe.
112. “The great events of this world take place in the brain.” Oscar Wilde.
113. Albert Einstein: “The cosmic religious feeling is the strongest and oldest motive for scientific research.
114. Only those who realise the immense efforts and, above all, the devotion without which pioneer work in theoretical science cannot be achieved are able to grasp the strength of the emotion out of which alone such work, remote as it is from the immediate realities of life, can issue.
115. “What a deep conviction of the rationality of the universe and what a yearning to understand it . . . Kepler and Newton must have had to enable them to spend years of solitary labour in disentangling the principles of celestial mechanics.” 1954. Albert Einstein. Ideas and Opinions. 39-40
116. “They will have the why and the wherefore, and will take nothing for granted.” Charles Dickens.
117. And “the laws of physics are just what they would be expected to be in coming from the void”. Vic Stenger, physicist. The Comprehensible Cosmos.
118. So let it be.

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Replies to This Discussion

have been thinking about you and Jacquie' anniversary all morning as I went about my chores. A very happy anniversary!

Imagine the surprise when I sat down to my computer and discover you have published your latest book. 

Terry, thank you for A NEW BIBLE IN THREE TESTAMENTS. I like the clarity of the ideas:

#34. "our Universe simply is," using science to explain the existence of the universe, including the use of quantum physics. 

#38. "universes cannot have any first cause."

#39. "postulations of the supernatural are superfluous, dispensable, worthless.

 #40. the “people’s gods exist only in their heads. Atheism is the condition of the Universe into which we are all born, and naturally develop unless indoctrination into some ‘faith’ comes about—the most intense pressure being directed at blameless children. There is no supernaturalism.”

Looking forward to reading your book.




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