Otzi the Iceman is the very renowned 5300 year old mummified man found in the Italian Apls in 1991. His DNA has been completely analyzed and the DNA of his Y chromosome is consistent with that of 19 living males. This means the 19 living males are related to him. Scientists are searching for more living relatives of Otzi by attempting to match his Y chromosome DNA to that of other living males. His Y chromosome haplogroup is: G-L91. I'm not a match (my paternal haplogroup is I-L621). Might you know one?
That's impossible. Everyone knows the global flood occurred 4300 years, so how could they find him in a glacier? And how could just the locals be related to him?
Well, not a chance that my male lineage could be related, but it's fascinating that they were able to sequence his genome. Every time some fragment of traceable DNA comes to light, it gives us more knowledge of human pre-history, a field that I'm fascinated with! :-) I wonder if they will sequence his entire genome, and trace relatives through other genetic traits! Me, I'm 2.6% Neanderthal, and proud! :-P
thanks for the links John - will read those
Natalie, like you I'm absolutely fascinated by this topic and the discoveries made and the knowledge we have gained from DNA research. I'm curious how you found out the percentage of your Neanderthal ancestry?
How does someone like me even find out what Y chromosome haplogroup I belong to?
I had testing done by a company called 23andme. They test for various SNPs associated with various diseases and traits. They also classify your ethnic heritage, although not very precisely. My brother's (hence my father's) Y haplogroup is R1a1 and my maternal mtDNA is T1f2. The Neanderthal percentage is based on Svante Paabo's sequencing of Neanderthal DNA. Somehow it pleases me that they didn't die out altogether, even though they no longer exist in the pure form. I had mourned their passing for years, because they WERE human, and it made me SO happy to know I have some Neanderthal ancestry. It seems that everyone outside of sub-Saharan Africa does -- there obviously was mixing as well as fighting. And the Neanderthals must have originated as a human subgroup outside of Africa, since sub-Saharan Africans show no trace. Innerstin', eh?
Another organization that will test your DNA is the National Geographic Society. It doesn't test for disease, only ancestry. However, it has a very wide variety of DNA types that it will subdivide your DNA into. I'm half Italian and, consistent with this, it said my DNA was 49% Mediterranean, 33% Northern European, 17% Southwest Asian, 2.9% Neanderthal and 3% Denisovan. (All Europeans have Southwest Asian DNA because their ancestors were in Southwest Asia before having gone into Europe. According to NG the average German is 17% Southwest Asian.) NG also provides maps with location markers showing the paths (with significant detail) that your paternal and maternal ancestors took out of Africa and eventually into Europe. Dates are associated with the location markers on each path to convey when your ancestors were in particular locations on their journeys. Finally, a narrative is provided for each location marker on each path that provides additional information about your ancestors having been there. The total cost (for both paternal and maternal analyses) is $200.
Natalie and John, thanks very much for your replies and the recommendations. I'm going to look into both those sources. I already know that I'm the typical European mutt: Scottish, Danish, Norwegian, German. But the idea of discovering ancestry percentages and migrations is what really fascinates me. It more closely links all humanity together on a grand scale.
For the record I am I1b2a through my father --which is not Otzi's line.
But my mother was U3something, and much the same as the 10,000 year old caveman of Cheddar Gorge in Somerset. I forget the exact DNA code (being away from home excavating a Neolithic stone circle in the north of England).