Another PhD Candidate Goes Over the Edge

“Here’s an object more of dread / Than aught the grave contains – A human form with reason fled / While wretched life remains.”

Abraham Lincoln, letter to Andrew Johnson, Sept. 6, 1846


A heavily armed man explodes a gas canister in a theater, then opens fire,  killing a dozen, wounding many more.  Again, Colorado and the nation are in shock.  The eternal gun debate, which Obama had been keeping quiet, explodes, four months before an election.  There’s very little that’s known about him, but one of the first facts to emerge is that he’s a PhD candidate.

Chilling fact

I find that chilling, because I know how difficult and demeaning the process can be.  It tests your mettle and sometimes your sanity.  Some people never finish, and for the rest of their lives, they're tormented by the lack of closure and thoughts of what might have been accomplished.

First, there’s a bunch of course requirements, at the end of which, in many graduate programs, you have to take a PhD qualifying exam, which also confers the Master’s degree.  At this point you are ABD (All But Dissertation), a plateau from which many never ascend.

The dissertation is a major hurdle, psychologically, intellectually, and physically. It’s long.  It’s supposed to be an original contribution to knowledge, but it’s typically whatever your advisor says it is.  This is how you’re supposed to learn intellectual independence?


That’s what happened to me.  Living and teaching in Hawaii, I took a course at the University from a visiting prof, an eminent linguist named William Labov, who had developed novel field methods that were now possible with battery-powered cassette recorders instead of bulky, plug-in reel-to-reel recorders.  Now field linguists had a method of conveniently capturing significant quantities of people’s natural speech, instead of just transcribing subjectively the linguist’s list of phonetically differentiated words.

Well, my advisor back in Chicago was having none of it.  He was an old-school dialectologist.  He had a beagle named Darwin (get it?).  He fired me.  Where was my list of words?  I’m still 4,000 miles away, remember, and I just learned a new way to do research. 

I wrote an aggrieved letter to the Department Chairman, imploring him to let me use the latest field methods, because isn’t that what the progress of science is all about?  He let me switch advisors, to James D. McCawley, an eccentric genius and compadre of Chomsky’s, of Scottish descent but an Oriental gourmet who’d spent many years in the Far East and could order a full meal in Chinese.  I had taken several courses with him, and he was on my side; he wanted me to get it done. 

Sugar cane and cockfighting

After that, things went smoothly,  I drove my little VW Bug out to remote plantation areas, where I interviewed people about their immigration and plantation experiences. 

I captured a lot of natural speech.  I learned much more about sugar growing and cockfights than I ever expected (or needed) to know.  I transcribed meticulously, analyzed, wrote, and typed out a final draft which I then gave to a typist (no word processing – you had to have a professional typist at $1.80 a page).  I showed how the interviewees' speech varied when they addressed each other and when they talked to me.  I made the Observer’s Paradox work in my favor.

The advisor rules.

Did I mention that you are your advisor’s slave?  You do it the way he/she says or risk severe consequences.  I was lucky.  Advisors can jerk you around, be unavailable, constantly raise the bar, treat you with indifference, disdain and contempt, block you at every stage of the way.

But somehow you get it done.  Now you have to defend it.  I flew from Honolulu to Chicago (nine hours), and in the throes of jet lag, defended my work before a panel of profs from various departments.  One asked me if this wasn’t just another way of displaying the data.  I replied that even if he were right, which he wasn’t, the display itself can reveal new information. 

A few minutes after a closed door meeting, McCawley came out and told me I was in.  I had a University of Chicago PhD – and, as the song goes, they can’t take that away from me.

The cost

But at what cost!  And nobody paid me for it.  I did the whole dissertation on my own time and my own dime.

Lucky for me I had a strong success drive and belief in what I was doing.  Weaker people have died from this process.  By their own hand.  I’ve heard of one (reliable informant). 

The process wears at you.  Months, years go by, you’re getting older, and you get nowhere. Your thesis topic gets stale and boring.  You doubt yourself.  You judge yourself harshly, whereas in reality getting a PhD is just as hard as getting an MD, if not harder, because so much of it has to be done on your own, usually with the indifference or outright opposition, not the support of your superiors.

And for what?

The academic job market has been dead for three decades.  The tenure system keeps stars and dead wood in place.  More and more teaching is done by miserably paid grad students and adjuncts.  Some science and research departments in corporations and government prefer (and often require) a PhD.  But in the humanities or social sciences?  Forget it.

So I am utterly creeped out by the fact that this latest mass murderer is a PhD candidate. I will be an information junkie, until I find out what, if any, contribution was made to his murderous insanity by his PhD studies.  Maybe none at all.  I hope.



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Comment by Alan Perlman on August 5, 2012 at 10:50am

To S/B and Loren...I know about each and every recent academic shooting.  I have the same reaction every time, as posted above. 

The grad student is working his/her ass off, trying to manage a myriad of requirements (forgot to mention, I had to be able to read at least two foreign languages), and insterad of encouragement, encounters indifference, arbitrary rule-changes, micromanagement, and sometimes outright opposition.  

The frustration level is so high that the more unstable types will take up arms against their tormentors.  So yes, they represent the extremes (others turn the hatred on themseves), but there is, as with almost any hierarchy, some kind of hazing and a build-up of anger and resentment.  Fulfilling requirements is not enough - there must be suffering and humiliation.  I have no idea why, except "they did it to me, so I'm doing it to you."

Comment by Daniel W on August 4, 2012 at 5:35pm

Loren, my own experience is way back in the past.  I don't know if it was hazing or just a form of very cheap, disposable, highly trained, labor for the professors and universities.

Comment by Loren Miller on August 4, 2012 at 5:11pm

Right off the top, all I have is a lousy B.S from Case Tech in Electrical Engineering (and at that, I graduated at or near the BOTTOM of my class, I'm sure), so I don't know squat about going through what appears to be the gauntlet of a PhD candidacy.  However, from everything I'm hearing here, my impression is that, despite the necessity of wanting certainty when adding new knowledge to the base, it strikes me that there is a degree of hazing and/or bullying going on here which is almost certainly not conducive to the candidate, and possibly not to the process, either.

Anyone else (especially anyone with a "Fudd" after their name) think this is the case, or am I just fulla beans?

Comment by Daniel W on August 4, 2012 at 5:00pm

Alan, when life goes in a direction that's not working, I know I have to move on.  Sometimes it's very hard, but it has to happen.

I can't say I'm a cynic about everything, but I can be pretty jaded.  There are things that keep me going, and I have some passions. 

I have had advantages too - some, inherited in the form of temperament, early influences, sources of wisdom and experience, good nutrition, the unfair privilege of a white phenotype, a voracious appetite for learning.  I am grateful to have received those advantages, even if I'm not always sure who to thank.

As for PhD candidates, and professors, who go bonkers - and other academic abuses - there is something wrong with the system.  There is also Amy Bishop, a biology professor who blew away some colleagues.   Gang Lu, a former PhD Candidate who blew away professors in Iowa.   And a variety of other killings.  Not that a handful of murders means the system is bad everywhere...

Wow.  I remember, after defending my PhD Dissertation, I walked in a daze to the student union, went into a booth in the men's room and vomited.  Literally.  Fortunately, I passed.

Comment by Alan Perlman on July 29, 2012 at 12:17pm

S/B - I admire your rational acceptance of what cannot be changed, along with the realization that life us not fair.  We tend to personalize injustice, but if I look dispassionately at my own life, I see that I've had advantages that others didn't - stable home, paid-for education, being white and male, and more. 

But it is jarring to find, over and over, that institutions that pride themselves on probity and fairness are rotten to the core (Penn State).  But whaddaya gonna do  - be a cynic 24/7 about everything?

Comment by Daniel W on July 28, 2012 at 9:26pm

Alan, thanks.  In retrospect, I don't think it's incredible.  It's all politics, and it's not a meritocracy.  I've put it all behind me.  Life these days is hard work, and stressful, but reasonably secure and have done well compared to a lot of other things I could have done.  I've paid a price, but that's how it went.  What's done is done.

As for the diversity - in my case, I would have brought diversity, as a veteran, and the only openly gay man in the department.  In fact, that might be part of why i was not an "in group member" - homophobia was rampant and there wasn't respect for military veterans in the sciences back then.  The tenure track positions went to connected cronies, who were not black, or hispanic, and mostly not women.  But that was over 20 years ago, who knows what the situation is now.

Comment by Alan Perlman on July 28, 2012 at 10:37am

To S/B...Incredible that you didn't earn a tenure-track position with all you'd done...but maybe not so amazing when you realize how cost-efficient it is not to have too many people pursuing a tiny handful of tenured positions...or how fanatic academia is about "diversity."  Women, blacks and Hispanics -- probably not as qualified as you -- got those tenure-track positions.  That's what they mean by "Equal Opportunity" - what a joke.

My compliments on your two doctoral studies.  You have really been through the wringer.  I still maintain that there's nothing in a doctor's education that corresponds to the formidable monster of a PhD thesis (but staying up 56 hours comes close). 

Comment by Daniel W on July 27, 2012 at 10:35pm

He's not the first PhD candidate to go over the edge, but he probably is the most dramatic and prolific.  I wonder if he was on drugs.

I left academia after not making tenure track, despite the PhD, postdoctoral studies, out-granting my peers, publishing, adding coauthors who had nothing to do with the work, for political reasons, setting up a lab, and bringing new expertise to my department.   My advisor had no intention of letting a productive golden goose become a potential competitor.  Fortunately, or not, I ultimately went on an entirely different career path, but looking back I'm amazed at the stealing of credit, pressure to overly-massage, and even fake, data, overwork, forced ghost writing, and other forms of abuse and fraud.

Academia is full of abuse, as are many other industries.  Too bad the ivory tower is badly stained.  The educational system often defrauds the students and the taxpayer.  There is much good, too, but tenure should be eliminated, grad students should unionize, and the universities should be held accountable for useless degrees.

Well, I never hurt anyone, anyway, let alone killing and eating 3 women like this PhD candidate,  or this PhD candidate who murdered his advisor with a ball peen hammer (19 years of grad school?  Boy was I lucky).  I don't think it happens much, however.  These may be the only cases.

As for PhD being harder than MD, I've been through both, separately.  I don't know.  As a medical resident, I sometimes had to be up 56 hours, and was often verbally abused as part of the "hazing" that residents went through at the time.  Each was a form of indentured servitude in its own way.  Medical school cost a helluva lot more, and was more degrading than grad school.  I hope that's changed for the better.


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